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KENNEDY AT STARDUST HOTEL AND CASINO. JOHN F. KENNEDY WAS PART OF THE LAS VEGAS SEVEN AND THE SANDS HOTEL AND CASINO "JACK PACK". CITIZEN KANE HAD MANY FAMOUS FRIENDS.

CITIZEN KANE WAS THE KING OF LAS VEGAS AND SAILED WITH MONACO ROYALTY. DALITZ DATED BETTY GRABLE. THE LAS VEGAS NOW HAD BECOME A TOOTHLESS TIGER.

HE HAD BECOME A LAS VEGAS SUPERSTAR. HE WAS BEYOND REPROACH. LAS VEGAS OWED CITIZEN DALITZ THEIR PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE.

ROBERT KENNEDY ORDERED EDGAR HOOVER'S F. TO FOLLOW DALITZ IN LAS VEGAS. CITIZEN DALITZ HAD A CONSTANT FEDERAL TEAM ON HIM SINCE THE 'S.

WHAT WAS CITIZEN DALITZ WORTH? HIS NEWPORT CASINOS SKIM WAS NEVER RECORDED OR THE SALE OF HIS ILLEGAL CASINOS. HIS LA COSTA RESORT GAVE HIM A PERMANENT HOME WORTH MILLIONS.

HIS VARIOUS LAS VEGAS HOTELS PROVIDED PENTHOUSE SUITES FOR HIS BUSINESS USE. IN NOVEMBER , DALTIZ WAS FORCED TO SELL THE SUNDANCE HOTEL AND CASINO IN DOWNTOWN LAS VEGAS, NEVADA.

THEY STASH THEIR MONEY. THEY CAN'T INVEST IT WITHOUT GOING THROUGH FUCKING FRONTS. THEM ITALIANS IN CLEVELAND MADE MILLIONS AND WHAT GOOD IS IT?

THEY LIVE LIKE PEASANTS". IN , JIMMY WAS A PAID LIMOUSINE DRIVER FOR DALTIZ'S CLEVELAND SYNDICATE. MOREOVER, ANGELO "GYP" DECARLO WAS SHOCKED BY THE WEALTH OF MOE DALITZ.

IN , DECARLO WAS UP UPSET WITH THE FACT THAT ITALIANS WERE GIVEN THE "LAS VEGAS CRUMBS" FROM THE MILLION DOLLAR FEAST. CITIZEN DALITZ TRAVELLED TO EUROPE AND ASIA.

HE OWNED SEVERAL YACHTS. HE PURCHASED THE RIPTIDE 54' EKCO AND SAILED HIS RIPTIDE YACHT ON LAKE MEAD, NEVADA. HE CALLED HIS NEW YACHT THE MOBY DICK.

THIS BECAME AN INSIDE JOKE FOR THE VARIOUS DALITZ INSIDERS. HE WAS GOING TO USE THE YACHT IN HIS NEW CASINO IN EITHER TURKEY OR FRENCH RIVIERA.

THE ITALIAN MAFIA TENDED TO HIDE THEIR MONEY. THE ORIGINAL ROLLS ROYCE CAMARGU WAS DESIGNED BY PRIOLO MARTIN AND NAMED AFTER THE COASTAL REGION OF SOUTHERN FRANCE.

CITIZEN DALITZ WOULD ENJOY A 35 MINUTE DRIVE TO THE FAMOUS MT. THE LODGE WAS 52 MILES FROM LAS VEGAS, NEVADA. THE LODGE WAS KNOWN FOR ITS GREAT COFFEE AND HOT CHOCOLATE.

THE WELL STOCK LIQUOR BAR MADE IT AN OBVIOUS CHOICE FOR CITIZEN DALITZ. THE AREA HAS EXCELLENT HIKING TRAILS FOR THE BEGINNER AND ADVANCED HIKERS.

HE USED HIS UTAH RANCH AS A FARM TAX LOSS. HE HAD HEAD OF CATTLE AND HAD HORSES ON THE RANCH. HE BUILT A PRIVATE AIRSTRIP AND GUEST HOUSE.

HE USED HIS RANCH FOR MOUNTAIN LION HUNTING. DALITZ HAD A PACK OF DOGS THAT AIDED HIM IN HUNTING DOWN MOUNTAIN LIONS.

KIRK KERKORIAN BOUGHT THE ORIGINAL 25 ACRES FROM DALITZ TO EXPAND THE MGM. LAS VEGAS HAS BECAME A PROXY FOR THE AMERICAN ECONOMY. LAS VEGAS STRIP HAD BECOME THE EPI-CENTER OF A NEW CASINO INDUSTRY.

LAS VEGAS CASINOS HAD EVOLVED INTO THE SHADOW REAL ESTATE BANKS OF THE 21ST CENTURY! CITIZEN DALITZ MADE A QUANTUM LEAP IN LAS VEGAS.

NO ONE EXPECTED THE GAMBLE IN THE DESERT TO BECOME A MAJOR FORCE IN AMERICAN SOCIETY. THE GAMING INDUSTRY IS WORTH A TRILLION DOLLARS.

WHAT WAS THE LAS VEGAS STRIP CYCLE? THE TIME LAG BETWEEN THE DISCOVERY AND EXECUTION WAS USUALLY 10 YEARS. IN LAS VEGAS, THE BOOM AND BUST CYCLE WAS ABOUT 18 YEARS FOR THE LAS VEGAS STRIP.

MOREOVER, LAS VEGAS WAS BUILT ON A FLOOD PLAIN. ED TORRES RENAMED THE HOTEL AS THE EL RANCHO HOTEL AND CASINO.

THIS WAS THE GOLDEN AGE OF THE LAS VEGAS STRIP. THE POST-WORLD WAR II CONSUMER BOOM CREATED DEMAND FOR THE LAS VEGAS VACATION. THE LAS VEGAS STRIP WAS BEING FUNDED BY TEAMSTER PENSION FUNDS AND BANK OF LAS VEGAS.

DALITZ'S DESERT INN AND STARDUST HOTEL WERE THE PINNACLES OF THE LAS VEGAS STRIP. THIS BECAME THE BASIS FOR THE NEW GAMING INDUSTRY. THIS WAS THE "WILD WEST" OF CASINO GAMING AND RISE OF THE GREEN FELT JUNGLE.

ON JULY 7, , THE MINT HOTEL AND CASINO BECAME THE LOW-ROLLER CAPITAL. THE MINT BECAME THE "NEW STAR OF FREMONT STREET". SAM BOYD WAS THE ORIGINAL MANAGER OF THE MINT HOTEL.

THOMPSON'S NOVEL FEAR AND LOATHING IN LAS VEGAS. THE MINT WOULD GIVE SPECIAL BEHIND THE SCENES TOURS OF THE MONEY COUNT ROOM.

LATER, DEL WEB BOUGHT OUT THE CASINO AND ADDED A HOTEL. THE BINION BROTHERS BOUGHT OUT THE MINT HOTEL AND ENLARGED THE BINION'S HOTEL AND CASINO.

JACKIE GAUGHAN BECOMES A SYMBOL OF THE DOWNTOWN AREA. MOREOVER, THE FIRST LAS VEGAS FUN BOOKS WERE ISSUED BY JACKE GAUGHAN'S EL CORTEZ HOTEL.

IN , JAKIE GAUGHAN WOULD HAND OUT FREE FUN BOOKS WITH COUPONS FOR A FREE ROLL OF NICKELS AND FREE STEAKS. LAS VEGAS BARGAIN HUNTERS WERE A NEW MARKETING NICHE FOR DOWNTOWN GRIND CASINOS.

BEGAN ITS FIRST CIVIL WAR AGAINST GAMING IN LAS VEGAS. THIS WAS KNOWN AS THE WILD WEST PERIOD OF THE LAS VEGAS STRIP. IT RAN FROM KEFAUVER WHO STARTED IN , AND IT STOPPED WITH HOWARD HUGHES.

ON AUGHT 5, JAY SARNO'S CAESAR'S PALACE WAS AN INSTANT HIT. JAY SARNO'S CAESAR'S PALACE SETS THE NEW STANDARD IN THE COMING MEGA-RESORTS. FRANK SINATRA LOSES HIS CAL NEVADA GAMBLING LICENSE IN THE S GAVE WAY TO A SERIES OF UNSOLVED LAS VEGAS RELATED MURDERS.

THE LAS VEGAS RUMOR MILL ONLY SAID ONE WORD "BINION". IN , THE GODFATHER OF THE LAS VEGAS SAM GIANCANA WAS EXECUTED IN HIS OWN HOME.

MANY SPECULATE THE KILLING WAS MAFIA RELATED. MOREOVER, THAT SAME YEAR JIMMY HOFFA WAS KILLED. ON MAY 26, , ATLANTIC CITY NEW JERSEY OPENS ITS FIRST CASINOS.

THE ATLANTIC CITY MARKET WAS A HIGHLY DECEPTIVE MARKET AND ENDED UP BEING A CASINO DISASTER. THIS WAS NOT A CASINO GROWTH MARKET.

THE NEW CAESAR'S WORLD WANTED TO CREATE A MARK ANTHONY HOTEL AND CASINO AND THIS FAILED. THE FILM INVOLVED ILLEGAL DIAMOND SMUGGLING ON THE LAS VEGAS STRIP.

THE DOWNTOWN FREMONT AREA WAS USED FOR NIGHT FILMING WHICH INCLUDED A FORD MUSTANG CAR STUNT. LATER, SHELBY AND CLAUDINE WILLIAMS OPENED THE RIVERBOAT THEMED HOLIDAY CASINO.

THEY USED GEORGE E. GOLDBERG'S RIVERBOAT CASINO AS THE MODEL FOR THEIR HOLIDAY CASINO. GEORGE E. GOLDBERG'S FLAMINGO CAPRI EVOLVED INTO THE IMPERIAL PALACE.

FROM TO , HOLIDAY INN BOUGHT OUT THE HOLIDAY CASINO AND CONVERTED IT INTO HARRAH'S HOTEL AND CASINO. THE MGM GRAND HOTEL HAD 2. HOLLYWOOD HAD A SECOND HOME ON LAS VEGAS STRIP..

THE MGM HOTEL WAS HIT BY A MAJOR FIRE AND PUBLIC RELATIONS DISASTER. HOWARD HUGHES FINAL SYMBOL OF FAILURE WAS THE LANDMARK HOTEL AND CASINO.

BOYD WAS AWARE OF HOWARD HUGHES PURCHASE OF THE CASTAWAY HOTEL AND CASINO. BOYD GENIUS WAS TO REACH OUT TO THE HAWAIIAN MARKET AND CREATED A HAWAIIAN NICHE MARKET.

BOYD WENT TO HAWAII AND STARTED A DIRECT MARKETING CAMPAIGN TO WIN THE HEARTS AND MINDS OF THE HAWAIIAN PEOPLE.

SAM BOYD USED "MAHALO PARTIES" TO ATTRACT HAWAIIAN GAMBLERS. HE BROUGHT OVER COORS BEER FROM MAINLAND TO HAWAII.

THEY OFFERED HAWAIIANS BEEF JERKY AS SPECIAL TREATS. FROM TO THIS BECAME HAWAIIAN'S SECOND HOME AND 9TH HAWAIIAN ISLAND. BOYD'S LUCKY FROG T-SHIRTS PAID OFF MILLIONS FOR THE CASINO.

IN WILLIAM BOYD RESCUED THE STARDUST FROM THE MOB'S SKIM. KIRK KEVORKIAN HAD BUILT THE MGM GRAND HOTEL DURING THIS PERIOD.

THIS PERIOD WAS MARKED BY RISE OF ORGANIZED CRIME AT THE STARDUST HOTEL AND CASINO. ORGANIZED CRIME DIVIDED THE CITY INTO DIFFERENT SPHERES OF INFLUENCE.

THIS WAS THE PERIOD OF THE SECOND F. CIVIL WAR. THE RESULTS WERE TEN NEWLY MINTED THEMED MEGA-RESORTS. IN , LAS VEGAS BECAME AN ALL AMERICAN CITY.

THE LAS VEGAS STRIP WAS THE CASH COW OF THE GAMING INDUSTRY IN NEVADA. IN , THE INDIAN GAMING ACT PASSED AND CREATED THE NATIVE AMERICAN GAMING BOOM.

THIS WAS A SLOW GROWTH PERIOD DUE TO THE GREAT RECESSION OF HOWEVER, THE ENCORE LAS VEGAS OPENED IN DECEMBER 22, THEY ARE NOW IN THE PROCESS OF COST CUTTING EMPLOYEES AND LOCATIONS FROM THE DEBT LOAD.

THE SECOND MAJOR LOSS CAME IN THE FORM OF CRYSTALS AT LAS VEGAS. THE CITY CENTER PROJECT HAD TO BE RE-BRANDED AS THE ARIA PROJECT.

THE SMART LAS VEGAS MONEY WENT OVERSEAS TO THE CHINESE COLONY OF MACAU. THIS IS A MAJOR CAPITAL OUTLAY FOR AN UNPROVEN MARKET. THE MASSIVE CRACKDOWN IN MACAU HAS CREATED A COLLAPSE IN STOCK VALUES.

IN , JAPAN HAS LEGALIZED GAMBLING AND INVITED LAS VEGAS CASINO OPERATORS INTO JAPAN. IN , THE ELECTION OF DONALD TRUMP HAS CREATED A NEW CHANGE IN CORPORATE TAXATION.

THE CASINO WAS FINANCED BY CHINESE INVESTORS WHO USED THIS TO RECEIVE ECB VISAS. IN , THE LAS VEGAS CASINOS HAVE OVERCOME THE NET LOSS. THERE IS NO STATE INCOME TAX IN NEVADA.

WILL THE STOCK COLLAPSE? ON JANUARY 5, , THE YEAR OF THE RAT, BROUGHT LAS VEGAS TO ITS KNEES: THE ENTIRE LAS VEGAS STRIP CLOSED BECAUSE OF COVID THIS ALLOWED FOR THE COLLAPSE OF TRAVEL AND TOURISM IN NEVADA.

THE VIRUS HAS CRUSHED THE TRAVEL INDUSTRY AND DESTROYED A MULTI-BILLION INDUSTRY. LAS VEGAS PLANS TO REOPEN IN JUNE OF LAS VEGAS CANNOT REALISTIC RECOVER UNTIL JANUARY OF EVERY NATIVE AMERICAN CASINO WILL HAVE ACCESS TO THIS GROWTH INDUSTRY.

IN , LAS VEGAS WILL RECEIVE OVER 50 MILLION TOURISTS A YEAR! THE NEW LAS VEGAS STOCKS WILL ENTER INTO A BOOM ON WALL STREET STOCK MARKET. WHAT WAS MOE DALITZ QUANTUM SECRET?

THE CASINO GROWTH RATE CREATED THE LAS VEGAS STRIP. THE DOWNTOWN AREA DID NOT HAVE THE DEMAND DYNAMICS TO CREATE A CASINO GROWTH RATE.

THE KEY TO THE FUTURE OF LAS VEGAS WAS CONNECTED TO THE CASINO GROWTH RATE. THE OTHER CITIES IN NEVADA COULD NOT GENERATE A FASTER THAN NORMAL CASINO GROWTH RATE.

THE RISE OF SUN BELT CORRIDOR CREATED A NEW CORRIDOR OF WEALTH. THIS PRINCIPLE LED HIM TO LAS VEGAS OVER ALL OTHER PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES.

THIS WAS THE ESSENCE OF THE LAS VEGAS MONOPOLY. THE LAS VEGAS MONOPOLY CREATED OVER 17, INDUSTRY CASINO JOBS. THE CASINO SKIM WAS BASED ON A FAST GROWING CASINO GROWTH RATE.

CITIZEN DALITZ SET UP A BUSINESS MODEL DESIGNED TO CASH IN ON THE FASTEST GROWING MARKET IN THE UNITED STATES. THE RECESSION IMPACTED LAS VEGAS WITH DECLINING ROOM RATES AND LOWER OCCUPANCY RATES.

IN FOUR CASINO HOTELS OPENED IN LAS VEGAS, NEVADA. THEY WERE THE ROYAL NEVADA, DUNES, RIVIERA, AND MOULIN ROUGE. ALL FOUR HOTELS MET WITH FINANCIAL DISASTER.

IT WAS BAD LUCK TO OPEN A CASINO DURING A RECESSION. THE ORGANIZED CRIME FAMILIES USED FRONT MEN TO HOLD LICENSES AND CREATED THE SKIM.

JOE SULLIVAN WAS THE FRONTMAN FOR THE PATRIARCA FAMILY. THE PATRIARCA FAMILY HAD MULTI-MILLION PORTFOLIO IN ILLEGAL GAMBLING.

THEY USED LANSKY'S MIAMI HOTEL MEN TO FRONT FOR THE CHICAGO OUTFIT. THIS LAW OPENED THE DOOR FOR ORGANIZED CRIME. THE NEW RIVIERA HOTEL WAS DESIGNED AS A MIAMI BEACH HOTEL ON THE LAS VEGAS STRIP.

THE NEW LUXURY STYLE MADE CITIZEN DALITZ VERY JEALOUS AND HE WANTED A PIECE OF THE " RIV". THE "RIV" HAD IT ALL IN THE UPSCALE CLOVER ROOM, STARLIGHT ROOM, DINO'S DEN AND THE FAMOUS LIBERACE.

THE CASINO WENT BANKRUPT IN 3 MONTHS. IN , THE HOTEL WAS SOLD TO ED LEVINSON , CARL COHEN AND JACK ENTRATTER. THEY INVESTED IN BOTH THE ROYAL NEVADA AND ALEXANDER BISNO'S MOULIN ROUGE.

THE ROYAL NEVADA OPENED IN APRIL OF AND CLOSED ON JANUARY 1, THE ROYAL NEVADA WAS DESIGNED AS AN UPSCALE MOTEL-HOTEL WITH A CASINO.

FRANK FISHMAN WAS RUNNING OUT OF MONEY AND TOOK A LOAN FROM DALITZ. FRANK FISHMAN WAS BOUGHT OUT AND A. THE HOTEL STARTED LOSING MONEY AND THE OCCUPANCY RATES WERE VERY LOW.

THE CASINO GROWTH PRINCIPLE STATES THAT YOU DO NOT START A LAS VEGAS HOTEL AND CASINO DURING A RECESSION. THE MOULIN ROUGE HOTEL AND CASINO OPENED AND CLOSED IN 5 MONTHS IN THE HOTEL WAS TARGETING THE AFRICAN AMERICAN COMMUNITY IN THE WESTSIDE AREA.

THERE WAS NO CONCEPT OF CASINO GROWTH FOR THE HOTEL. THE MOULIN ROUGE WAS LOCATED IN THE WORST SECTION OF LAS VEGAS CALLED THE WESTSIDE.

THE WESTSIDE WAS STUCK IN THE MUD OF LAS VEGAS RACISM. THIS WAS A SLOW GROWTH MARKET FOR THE MOULIN ROUGE HOTEL WITHOUT CREDIT LINES AND FINANCING.

THE AFRICAN AMERICAN MARKET WAS TOO SMALL AND HAD ONE OF THE LOWEST PER CAPITA INCOMES IN THE UNITED STATES. ON MAY 18, THE RECESSION FEVER BROKE WITH THE BUILDING OF THE FREMONT HOTEL AND CASINO.

THE FREMONT HOTEL AND STARDUST HOTEL BECAME INFAMOUS SIAMESE TWINS DURING THE 'S AND 'S. THE FREMONT HOTEL AND CASINO WAS BUILT OVER THE DOUBLE ZERO CLUB.

THE NEW HOTEL CREATED A NEW VISION OF THE COMING BOOM TO LAS VEGAS. THIS HOTEL WAS FINANCED BY LOUIS LURIE OF SAN FRANCISCO AND EDDIE LEVINSON.

LOUIS WAS A BRILLANT PATRON OF THE THEATER ARTS. HE SPENT MILLIONS OF DOLLARS ON BROADWAY SHOWS AND SUPPORTED THE GEARY AND CURRAN THEATER.

EDDIE LEVINSON USED THE TEAMSTER LOAN TO SECURE THE MORTGAGE ON THE PROPERTY. EDDIE LEVINSON MANAGED MEYER LANSKY'S HAVANA RIVIERA HOTEL AND CASINO UNTIL FIDEL CASTRO TOOK OVER CUBA.

THE NEW BATTLE OF STRIP HOTELS CAME TO A HEAD WITH THE CREATION OF THE TROPICANA HOTEL AND CASINO. THIS HOTEL WAS CALLED THE TIFFANY OF THE STRIP.

THE TROPICANA HAD A CUBAN STYLE THEME WITH 4 DIFFERENT ROOM DESIGNS. HE LEASED THE TROPICANA HOTEL TO PHIL "DANDY" KASEL WHO HAD WORKED WITH FRANK COSTELLO.

HE OPERATED OUT OF NEW ORLEANS. THE TROPICANA WAS CHARGED WITH SKIMMING PROFIT UNTIL IT WAS SOLD TO THE RAMADA INN. IN RAMADA INN ATTEMPTED TO CLEAN UP THE BALANCE SHEETS AND WORK ON ADDING NEW TOWERS.

ON JULY 2, , CITIZEN DALITZ OPENED THE STARDUST HOTEL AND CASINO. CORNERO HAD STARTED THE MEADOWS HOTEL AND CASINO IN THE 'S.

CITIZEN DALITZ MADE SERIES OF BUST OUT LOANS TO SEIZE CONTROL OF THE STARDUST. HE PLEADED WITH CITIZEN KANE AND WAS TOLD THAT THERE WOULD BE NO MORE FINANCING.

CITIZEN KANE WAS THE MASTER OF ECONOMIC WARFARE. HE WANTED TO STEAL THE STARDUST HOTEL AND USED ANY MEANS NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE HIS GOAL.

CITIZEN DALITZ DOMINATED LAS VEGAS FOR 10 YEARS. HE HAD A TEN YEAR HEADSTART ON THE F. CITIZEN DALITZ ADDED A NEW DIMENSION TO THE CASINO GROWTH FORMULA.

HE CREATED THE FIRST PROTOTYPE OF A MEGA-RESORT. BILLY DANIELS HAD A THREE YEAR CONTRACT WITH THE STARDUST. THE NEW MASS MARKETING OF THE LAS VEGAS VACATION INCLUDE LARGE SWIMMING POOL, DRIVE IN-THEATER, BUFFETS, LIDO DE PARIS AND 9 STORY TOWER.

HE GAVE SPECIAL POINTS OR INTERESTS TO HIS PARTNERS. DALITZ SKIM OPERATORS PHIL PONTI AND BOBBY STELLA, JR. CONTINUED TO OPERATE THE STARDUST HOTEL AND CASINO SKIM.

MOE DALITZ BECAME CHARLES FOSTER KANE IN LAS VEGAS. HE HAD ACHIEVED GREAT WEALTH. THE ONLY GLASS CEILING IN LAS VEGAS WAS MONEY. GREAT WEALTH PROVED THAT ONE HAD GREAT VIRTUE.

CITIZEN DALITZ WAS BEYOND GOOD AND EVIL. LAS VEGAS WOULD BECOME HIS PERFECT REPUBLIC. HE BECAME CITIZEN KANE OF LAS VEGAS. CASINOS MADE SURE THE CUSTOMERS WERE TOO HIGH ON EMOTIONS TO MAKE SMART DECISIONS.

THE AVERAGE PERSON MAKES , DECISIONS OVER A LIFETIME. IN A FIVE HOURS PERIOD, THE SLOT PLAYER HAS MADE 6, DECISIONS. WHAT IS LOSING FATIGUE?

MOREOVER, THE LOSING FATIGUE CREATES DROWSY DRIVING. THESE WINNING POOLS ALLOW FOR GREATER CHANCES OF WINNING A JACKPOT. THE PLAYERS CONTINUE TO PLAY A LONGER CYCLE WITH THE POOLING OF WINNINGS.

ONE COULD BUY AN INFINITE NUMBER OF CHANCES AND LOSE EVERY TIME. THE PLAYERS ARE TRYING TO OUTTHINK IBM'S WATSON.

THE A. SLOT MACHINES HAVE TAUGHT THE COMPUTER PROGRAM TO ERODE THE DECISION-MAKING CAPACITY OF SLOT PLAYERS.

HE MADE AND BROKE MEN IN LAS VEGAS. HIS ROLE MODEL WAS MAURICE MASCHKE OF CLEVELAND, OHIO. THE MAFIA BECAME MEDIA VICTIMS OF THEIR OWN SUCCESS.

LAS VEGAS WOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR ITALIAN-AMERICANS. DALITZ WAS THE KING OF LAS VEGAS. CITIZEN KANE WAS AN ALL AMERICAN FROM AN ALL AMERICAN CITY OF LAS VEGAS.

CITIZEN KANE KNEW THAT IF YOU DIDN'T SEE ALL THE CARDS -THEN YOU WERE NOT PLAYING WITH A FULL DECK! GAMBLING FAVORS SHORT TRENDS. INFINITY DOES NOT WORK IN A CASINO.

THE DESERT INN USED THE TOKEN ECONOMY OF CHIPS TO FOOL THE GAMBLERS INTO A FALSE BELIEF. THE GAMBLERS WERE TOLD THAT MONEY MEANS NOTHING IN A CASINO.

IN THE LAS VEGAS CASINO, THE LAWS OF ECONOMICS WERE SUSPENDED. THE ONLY WAY TO TRANSLATE YOUR CHIPS INTO REAL MONEY WAS TO LEAVE THE CASINO.

THE CASINOS DECIDED TO HAVE NO CLOCKS IN THE CASINO. THE GAMBLING CHIPS WERE NOT REAL AND YOUR MONEY WAS NOT REAL.

YOU WERE GIVEN THE ILLUSION OF BEING RICH. THE CASINO COULD CREATE ITS OWN MONEY SUPPLY OUT OF THIN AIR. THE CASINO HAD TO BECOME ITS OWN BANK.

THE CASINO'S ISSUED THEIR OWN VERSION OF CREDIT CARDS. THE COULD USE THE NEVADA COURTS TO ENFORCE LEGAL GAMBLING DEBT. THE CASINO COULD ISSUE MORE CHIPS THAN CASH RESERVES IN A SINGLE DAY.

They can and do run from the barely tolerable but dirt cheap, to the breathtakingly pricey. City of Seahaven large map. Decor is your standard nautical theme.

They are aiming for the just walked in trade. The quality is good, the prices are fair. Services are basic food and lodging. Entertainment, if any, is up to you.

Z yellow The physik of last resort. Alkinoos has no magic, but he has bandages and drugs, and can patch you up or chase the poks out of your body.

He has no magic, but his treatments work, and are priced so the poor of the Harbor District can afford them.

Alkinoos will beg the help of Marion the Healer if he feels a case is over his head. GG blue Gemcutters. Lapidary work of any kind from diamond to jet.

The vault is in the basement and very well guarded. Magic warded stone, curses, and locks. Fine dining, entertainment and males to please the female.

All males are trained and sterile. The house even boasts horse and deer exotics. The decor concentrates on the fantasy of romance elements.

Prices are middle class reasonable. FF blue Hire Ane. Be that a single Ane for what ever they do, to a whole army of them. Services include, Teleportation, communication, Rapid Education, accounting, animal training, child care, and more.

Priced from a few gold pieces to tens of thousands a year. EE yellow Tattoo parlor catering mainly to the Naval trade. Tattooing on the Greyhawke is still in the aw and poke stick phase.

You have to be tough to even get a tattoo. EE blue "m" The guild house for anyone in the city that sells without making their own goods.

By Eyrian law they cannot compel membership. So the pot has to be sweet. Mutual insurance and other benefits are offered. The guild polices the honesty of its members and a guild sign in your window is a sign of a trustworthy merchant.

Some goes by road but water is preferred when it can be done. The company runs the two warehouses and distributes goods to either the shipping company or the recipient in the city.

Usually by informing them to come get same. The Andrewplous Company has no carts of its own. The Andrewoplous Caravan Company is truly ancient predating the Empire.

It is no longer owned by the Andrewplous family and has not been for years. The once large caravansary where the caravans were assembled is long gone the land sold off to other uses.

Only the warehouses and offices remain. EE red A law office off the Central Market. They have both barristers and solicitors. More of the latter.

Antonis is also a vault service. The vault is old and highly secure. You can only remove it during the normal business hours. She lives with Antonis, no they do not sleep together.

She isa friend and colleague, mutual turnips. He pleases himself now with a couple of concubines. He is a man very much into the social fabric of the city and enjoying the long afternoon of half Elven life.

It dates from the reign of King Garren Steel who introduced what he called "tropic apples" to the area. The fruit proved highly popular, and the orchards that were his legacy remain in production.

The fruit has spread throughout the land. DD yellow Locksmith. Padlocks and mounted locks. While she does not stock magical locks she does masterwork of a quality to be enchanted.

Her best locks are a base DC 15 to open plus the mistresses skill in stopping you. The work is in high demand.. Yes she has a less than honorable past.

The child slowed that down and she settled to making locks to stop thieves. She still likes her fun, but plays more carefully. He lives in the Ward.

Menoeceus and his wife are detailed at the bottom. Yes he chooses to live in his Ward. Philo and his Wife are at the bottom. It is located in the backside of a tavern called the Silver Shark.

The Shark is an upscale "dive". It offers a decent selection of booze, good food, and a quiet atmosphere to enjoy same. If the usual bouncers are not enough the help calls on the guild in the "back".

Upscale adventurer "dive". The decor looks low rent, but the prices are not. I'm Under Him was great help in this department. Rumor has it started by the bartender that one map leads to an unlooted dungeon of great wealth.

The guild is in the back of the bar. The interior is notably larger than the exterior. The guild gathers intelligence, contracts quests, offers housing, acquires supplies, and if required provides healing to guild members.

Members of other guilds that have reciprocal agreements are welcome. The Evil Slayers' Guild is NOT one of them.

DD orange Darker orange is the rooming house where Belle, all sweetness and light runs things in a pleasant if detached manner.

Z red Not the best and hardly the worse. You get a bed that is reasonably clean and a tight roof. There isn't anything else. DD red General cobbler.

Quality is good, workmanship excellent. They pride themselves on making any shoe you ask for, even for odd feet. EE green "M" A mason's workshop.

At one ancient point they quarried into the mountain. Tis said that is where the basic structure of the Undermountain came from.

The days of the quarry are long gone, but workmen eye the ancient plug with unease. The shop was here long before Pertra owned it.

It has passed through many hands and many families. The stone they work comes from other sources and in greater variety. The shop does all types of mason's work.

From basic blocks of stone for building to fine carvings for home or temple. CC black A tavern. They serve drink and food, nothing else.

The only sex is the free agents that get a stink eye if spotted. The drink and food are good as benefits the frontal location. The object of note is a black granite nude of a beautiful woman, a masterwork of detail.

A hard raised to her face and a startled look. Rumor has it is a princess of a lost kingdom tricked into being stoned by a rival.

Similar to the Elven style but more vertical in nature. This example is overly large and reaches to the ground as several members of the family are large and in one case a quadruped.

This is no longer their primary residence as they have moved to South Rock Village. However it has a gate door that links to South Rock and makes getting into the city easy.

Not to mention the storage space. EE-FF blue circle "L" The tavern is aggressively vertical, there are sub rooms that cannot be reached without some climbing skill.

It is remarkable for the number of non-alcoholic drinks served. Tanuki are notorious lightweights when it comes to booze. The Boar's Head named for an Airilan delicacy is more expensive than most inns but fills up quickly due to the quality of the food and the rooms.

The innkeeper will arrange such such services as you desire. AA-6 yellow "k" A knacker is an undertaker for animals.

They will pay you a copper or two if the beast in on the hoof, and generally will not change if it is not. They take the worst of the worst, old, sick, and injured animals not fit for people consumption.

The business is located in the position of the old Riverboat docks. They have products in terms of hide; bone and meat meal, horns glue and anything you can get out of a dead beast unfit for people food.

Eddy did get some complaints about the stink. He appealed ot the Prince as a poor man performing a necessary service.

Book saw it his way and magicked the place to not stink. Bob has been a lot of places. Bob has a curtain wall and a bunch of communication magic.

Bob will also pay a decent premium for new locations. The standard fee is crowns. One person two miles or a full load around the world. BB red On the poorer side of town and mainly feeding off that.

You will not find items of great value here. The poor do not have items of great value even to pawn. The shop is a front counter, a small show room of various brick a brack off pawn.

A larger room in the back for that which is being held. Nothing living. Mukogall does not deal in stolen goods.

There are four apartments on the top floor. Mukogall lives in one of them. Three have entrances by a separate stair in the back. They work in copper, tin, bronze, zinc and brass.

Alloys made on site and goods made from the alloys. Ship fixtures, bells the best bells are bronze, and a few cannon.

Bronze guns are costly. They sell sheet and pewter to the tin smiths. Does that high span and the five mile walk intimidate? Take the bus. Several trips daily with stops on either side.

H-5 plum "b" Last chance to bolster your courage before crossing that long, high span. More than a few souls have turned back here and taken the ferry.

Dwarven courage or not. The place is simple the food decent, and the booze quality. Almost worth the trip from the city by itself.

EE light blue "c" Run by a refugee and her family. Ninje Caelyn has set out to be the most legendary smith ever. A difficult task if there ever was one when you consider who has come before.

Ninje Caelyn does only custom work. It is possible to get a minor magical weapon or armor here as she takes lessor items as trade. She spends most of her time working for the Astral Guild as she is bankrolled by Willis Blackmane.

Her calendar is usually full. DD red A tailor specializing in naval uniforms. Only the best cloth and finest work. They have all the necessary patterns and gee-gaws for Eyrian naval officers from the midshipman to the admiral.

They will also do fine clothing for the merchant captain wishing to cut a fine figure. They do not tend to fall into the price range available to midshipmen, or common sailors.

There is a passel of five kids running around. Most are hers. She has no permanent mate and is good with that.

One of her sewers, Nancy Calla, lives with her and is responsible for the rest of the kids. They do not share a bed. DD blue Magically preserved foods.

The goods are too pricey to equip entire ships, but the Captain or his officers can have fresh meat and fruits weeks into the voyage.

To that degree, very popular. They do a thriving business. Sandra not only preserves food in huge amounts she enchants the occasional ring or weapon.

It lets her keep her prices a touch more reasonable than they would otherwise be. Z-8 lt. What ever you need made from iron and steel. DD yellow "s" Shoe your horses, fix your wagon, make a toaster.

DD olive green "c" Custom printers. From handbills to books. They print the yearly Seahaven Almanac as a regular publication. The technology is the classic "Ben Franklin" style letter-set press.

Pictures are wood blocks or metal etchings. CC green "C" Public bathhouse. Good cleaning fun. Neither pricy or ostentatious.

Full typical services. A bath is half a mark. BB red" A nasty drug den. The true dregs of society. Drugs by infusion tea smoking or direct consumption depending on the drug.

The Caterpillar's Dream offers the drug user a really cheap environment to get wasted, hopefully. The purity of the drugs cannot be vouched for and getting out unrobbed is a gamble.

Beds are provided if indicated. Barracks or private depending on your budget. Sex is not sold here. What you do in your private room is your business.

Typical drugs are tobacco at the mild end of the smoakables, weed, and opium. Infusions include glitter, a plant based hallucinogen.

Shrooms are available as well. Stimulants are served in a different room than the euphorics. Ordering hallucinogens does require a private room, for yourself or your party.

CC red "f" Supplies hay and grain to city locations. Popular because they bring it to you and deal with getting feed to the city themselves.

Central market is a vast bazaar surrounded by more permanent shops. There are a number of "fairs" located about the city with central as the largest and most varied in terms of the goods to be found.

The central structure is the love temple. Located in the towers and strongholds around the city walls and the Courthouse. The City Watch are police, firefighters, and general first responders.

As a general practice they are selected for easy, friendly manners and a skill at arms. Eyrian Army Veterans are preferred as they come pre trained.

All are trained in first aid. What is not allowed is the attitude that your badge grants privilege. People that are overly aggressive or resort to force out of hand are fired.

Patrols consist of five guards, and a magician if they can get one. Clerics will be used. They move about their area keeping the peace, aiding lost children, directing travelers, reporting and extinguishing fires, and getting more help if that is indicated.

They will remove the inebriated from the street if it is obvious they are not self mobile. If you cannot give a clear report of where you live you'll wake up in the drunk tank.

It's not a crime mind you, it's a public service. Use it too frequently and they might charge you rent. Firefighting: Bells on poles are located around the city.

These are fire alarms. In an old city largely built of timbered houses fire is a serious threat. Any sounding of the alarm will be quickly responded to.

Guard towers have special decanters of endless water. They have one setting, "firehose" and pull water from the great river.

At times suspected of nefarious dealings but nothing has ever been directly traced to the location.

It is favored by cheap sailors and rivermen. EE black The inside of this small shop is enough to render one's nose numb. The number of competing odors is overwhelming.

The shop has a full range of spices and herbs common to cooking, medicine and magic. Colia carries drugs, both medicinal and recreational. A full line of anything you might want or need.

She even has poison, but only sells to those she trusts. Colia doesn't sell finished potions but sells the ingredients to male potions.

AA-7 tan Corbie gathers bones from butchers, households, wherever bones can be gotten and sells them to the renderers, in this case Boatdock Knackers is the usual spot.

He has no store front. He can be found wandering the city with his push cart. It is a hard scrabble living. Offices and cordage on the first floor and the sail loft, a large smooth gridded floor on the second.

They will make colored sails but do not do the dying in house. Only the sewing is done upstairs. The firm has squired specially built Allion sewing machines for the making of sails.

It vastly speeds the work. Living ashore is much better for maintaining a family and enjoying female company. He lives next to the shop.

F the location of the main house the farm is much larger. The Cordwayner Stud has supplied horses locally for as long as anyone can remember.

The dynasty goes back years. Cordwayner Stud breeds horses. Your general use medium sized horse that we would equate to the Morgan, good for light draft or saddle.

The trade has made the family stupidly wealthy, although they are not stupid with the wealth. A Wizard of fierce reputation. The tower's current tenant is not forward and is unknown by either name or reputation.

Archaeologists have commented on the fact that the incisions that were found at Tilocalar, Poconche and other ceramics produced at this stage are heterogeneous, with no sites on both sides of the Andes suggest that these farming especially distinctive local styles.

In fact, most pieces recovered and herding communities interacted with other groups over were made elsewhere, in a variety of other lands, and were a wide area that included other oases of Antofagasta Region, probably obtained through exchange with other groups and the southern Altiplano of Bolivia, and northwest Argentina.

They also left of Tulor, a dense village of circular mud-walled enclosures with 31 behind simple gray-colored rough-polished ceramic vessels, vaulted roofs connected by countless interior passageways which may be the most direct antecedent of the beautiful and courtyards, located close to the edge of the Atacama gray and black ceramics that would become prevalent in the salt flat.

By the beginning of the following stage, which has been In the Loa River area, the stage paralleling that of the Tilocalar named the Sequitor and spanned from to AD, has been identified at the oasis of Chiu Chiu.

The site contains several villages similar to Tulor could be found at Coyo, an extensive village compound with semi-underground Beter and other ayllus of San Pedro de Atacama.

The people structures and is dated to around BC. The bones of who lived here made fine ceramic bottles with lifelike wild camelids found in the middens there show that hunting anthropomorphic faces decoration on their necks.

They also of guanacos continued to be important to this community, made bowls, cups and other high-walled vessels in grey or but the site also yielded the bones of two different types of red, with polished surfaces.

The style of these ceramic pieces domestic camelids—a small llama that may have been raised was more homogeneous, suggesting that these communities for meat and wool, and another more robust one, which was had developed a more well defined ethnic identity by this probably used as a cargo animal in the caravan traffic.

Other time. Although most Tilocalar settlements have been found in A few had begun to snuff hallucinogenic powders using tubes, the oases at the foot of the Puna, in summertime some groups tablets and other instruments carved from bone or wood.

On their journeys, The Sequitor groups lived by growing corn, beans, chilies, these groups frequently visited high altitude lakes such as squash and gourds on a small scale.

Still ignorant of more Meniques and Miscanti, following in the footsteps of their complex irrigation techniques, they continued to build their Archaic ancestors.

During these excursions they collected villages on lands near the salt flat—Tulor being a prime products available only in these high-altitude environments, example—where they could use the water from the rivers such as obsidian, which they used to manufacture weapons and ravines to flood their gardens before it evaporated or and tools, and the eggs and feathers of Andean flamingos.

They was absorbed by the dry land. The scene shows a llama train passing by the geoglyphs of Cerro Sagrado in the Azapa Valley, Arica illustration: J.

These small settlements, situated at a higher elevation than the oases at the foot of the Puna, show that horticulture, hunting and herding in the intermediate ravines played a complementary role in the subsistence of farming groups that were now firmly settled in the villages of the larger oases.

Not surprisingly, llama caravan traffic was intense during this stage, as is demonstrated by a set of remains found in Calama that include large leather bags and baskets filled with tropical bird feathers, marine mollusk shells, quinoa and potatoes from the Altiplano and agricultural products from the Atacama oases.

One of the most important settlements of this stage of cultural development in the Norte Grande was found at Caserones, in the Tarapaca ravine.

The settlement consists of several rectangular enclosures encircled by a defensive wall and is thought to have housed up to people, quite a large number by the demographic standards of the day.

Nearby, the inhabitants grew corn and quinoa, collected pods from the algarrobo and tamarugo trees, kept herds of llamas and hunted wild animals.

Trade caravans departed from this village bound for San Pedro de Atacama, the valleys of Arica, the Bolivian Altiplano and various points in the desert and on the Pacific Outline of a geoglyph in the Guatacondo Ravine illustration: J.

Another extensive village was found somewhat further Arce. Berenguer south, in the Guatacondo ravine, having circular enclosures with stone and mud walls arranged around a central courtyard.

Their enclosures had storage spaces excavated in the floors of their dwellings where their occupants kept corn, beans, algarrobo pods and other produce to help them through times of scarcity.

RELATIONS WITH THE PEOPLE OF LAGO SAGRADO By around the middle of the 6th century AD, village living, agriculture and herding had become permanent fixtures in the Norte Grande.

For some time now, the inhabitants of this vast land had enjoyed well-established exchange networks based around a variety of caravan circuits that facilitated the flow of goods among settlements over an enormous area of the south-central Andes, including the valleys of southern Peru, the Bolivian Altiplano, northwest Argentina and the Lake Titicaca basin.

The exchange of goods among chiefs according to mechanisms of reciprocity played a crucial role in keeping this network functioning. Contacts were maintained and goods moved over great distances thanks to the interventions of leaders in the communities inhabiting intermediate spaces, resulting in a dynamic, cohesive system of social interaction and economic exchange that brought prosperity, albeit in differing Four-cornered hats, tunics and the ceramic vessels seen at the feet of these degrees, to virtually every corner of the Norte Grande.

Between and AD, the axis of prestige and political and religious power operating in the Altiplano of Peru and Bolivia had shifted away from the ancient chiefdom of Pukara, in the northern Titicaca In the valley, the Cabuza people lived beside their fields in basin, to Tiwanaku, on the southern shore of that great inland simple rectangular dwellings equipped with stone foundations sea.

When it emerged, the Tiwanaku State represented the and cane and reed walls tied together with ropes. They highest level of social, economic and political development buried their dead in a fetal position or squatting, wrapped in ever achieved by a pre-Hispanic society in the Andes south elaborate unkus woven tunics fastened with reed cords and of Cusco.

Between and AD, the capital of this State accompanied by grave goods. The deceased wore semicircular and its numerous urban settlements became the nerve center skullcaps or four-cornered hats in the typical Tiwanaku style.

The monumental scale of the Tiwanaku for drinking chicha a fermented beverage and a variety of pyramids, temples, palaces and stone sculptures are virtually bowls, serving dishes and pitchers of different sizes.

Their unequaled in the Andean world, and their textiles, basketry, ceramic vessels were usually painted red and decorated with ceramics, gold and silver artifacts and myriad of other fine crafts black designs that included spirals, wavy lines and triangles comprise some of the most eminent artwork ever produced arranged in columns or stepped motifs.

Some archaeologists by the ancient cultures of the Americas. The tombs of the elite contained essentially immensely, but the nature of that influence varied from the same kinds of objects as those of the general population, region to region.

In Azapa it was most clearly expressed in but notably finer and of much higher quality. Studies of the communities known as the Cabuza.

These agricultural groups bodies of these individuals reveal that they enjoyed a better had come from the Altiplano, bringing with them new farming quality of life than the other inhabitants of the valley.

They also exchanged goods with and other products that complemented their native Altiplano fishermen on the coast to obtain seaweed, fish, shellfish and diet.

The produce of these lowland colonies is thought to guano, which they then transported to the Altiplano. Beginning have been transported by llama caravan to the Titicaca basin.

Showing Licancabur volcano in the background, this scene depicts the oasis during the time of Tiwanaku influence illustration: J. The most sought-after goods seem to have been the valleys of Arica.

The material culture of these farming groups those of Tiwanaku manufacture and, to a lesser degree, those included fine textiles, ceremonial spoons and carved wooden from Aguada in northwest Argentina.

These included cups, axes, keros cups. Although several different ceramic traditions were diadems, plates and other gold objects found in cemeteries active during this period, the most emblematic was the Maytas dated to this period, as well as superbly woven unkus, ceramic style, which included pitchers and cups decorated with stepped pieces, baskets, bronze axes, portrait vessels and bone and triangular figures arranged in vertical rows painted in white wood artifacts.

Many of these had been made in the capital and black on a red base. Formally, the vessels and textiles of of the Altiplano state or in one of its regional centers.

They may have Sequitor stage, also served to strengthen these relations, as been completely autonomous communities, or they might have many of the implements used in this practice were decorated originally been subjects of that empire and later managed to with sacred images from Tiwanaku art and religious ideology.

Interestingly, some of the The most common snuffing equipment found includes Maytas-Chiribaya wore the typical four-cornered hats that seem woolen pouches containing a wooden snuff tablet, bone or wood to have functioned as an emblem of affiliation with Tiwanaku.

The active ingredient in these however, were quite a different matter. Individuals who managed powders came from the seeds of the cebil tree, whose range particular routes in the immense exchange network that had extends from Cochabamba, Bolivia in the north to Catamarca, formed in the region had accumulated status and power in Argentina in the south.

Berenguer 35 Representation of an individual using hallucinogenic snuff powder. This represents the Coyo stage ore, turquoise and other semi precious stones.

Many of the best pieces of the This stage of the San Pedro culture is called the Quitor, Tiwanaku ceramic tradition were brought to the oasis at this and it lasted from to AD, when the subsequent Coyo precise time, although very few reached communities in the stage began — AD.

Communities of these two stages rest of the region. In fact, objects made in the oasis have been found in places as distant as the Tarapaca ravine in the north, Salta in At the dawn of the new millennium, Tiwanaku fell and the Andes northwest Argentina, Chiu Chiu and Conchi, and on the Pacific region experienced four centuries of extreme aridity, large-scale coast.

There was likely also a San Pedro colony in Calahoyo, a human migration and conflict between communities of different locality in the Puna more than kilometers distant from ethnic origins.

In the Peruvian and Bolivian Altiplano, several San Pedro de Atacama. Tormented by a drought that peaked expression, which was embodied in black, carefully burnished between and AD, and forever seeking out products pieces such as bottles with stylized human faces on the necks, unavailable in the Altiplano, these groups exerted pressure on cups, bowls, engraved serving dishes and a wide range of the productive lands of the Norte Grande, installing colonies in other vessels.

This scene shows warriors from San Pedro de Atacama defending their position in the pukara fort at Quitor illustration: J.

They preferred to settle at the head of the valleys and keros cups are very similar to the Maytas-Chiribaya ones, the ravines of the Norte Grande, where they could control the wooden spoons made at this time adopted more functional water supply to meet their irrigation needs.

For these reasons, shapes. The following stage of the Arica culture is the Gentilar. The plus pukaras notable among which are spherical mugs adorned with a forts that were constructed at the foot of the Altiplano variety of decorative elements—serrated and stepped motifs, between Arica and San Pedro de Atacama, coupled with the crosses, circles and medallions depicting human figures, increased number of helmets, body armor, maces and other monkeys or felines—in white and black on a red background.

Other conflictive nature of this post-Tiwanaku period. The Gentilar lived in circular dwellings coastal valleys and mountains of southern Peru and the far with an exterior courtyard.

Groups living on the coast used north of Chile, there emerged the Arica culture—a group of stone and cane for their walls, while those in the mountains fishing and farming communities whose cultural expressions used stone, wood and straw.

Some of their villages, principally extend from Mollendo in Peru to the Azapa Valley in Chile. Indeed, tombs with stylized human figures and birds, in red and black on at this time were so poorly endowed that they often lacked a white background.

The textiles produced during this time even a single ceramic vessel, and occasionally had no grave were of a high technical quality, incorporating much more goods whatsoever.

Implements used for snuffing hallucinogens complex designs than in the previous period, although textile disappeared rapidly from the oasis while simultaneously appearing forms remained essentially the same.

Caspana in the Loa River basin, as well as in the Humahuaca lived here buried their dead in great clay pots inside the rooms ravine, the Jujuy Puna and the Calchaqui Valley in northwest of their dwellings.

Argentina, all places where they had not been seen before. One of the most typical forms Settlements, however, became larger in scale, a powerful in this stage is the bowl, which had a smoothed exterior and sign that the population had grown considerably.

The oasis of polished interior. During the Yaye stage to AD San Pedro de Atacama would likely have contained several these dishes were black on the inside, while in the following settlements the kind of the ayllu at Solor, and these would Solor stage to AD they were made in brown have consisted of large rectangular residential mud-walled or gray.

Bowls, as well as large pots and jugs with smoothed enclosures with enormous urns of water or chicha fermented surfaces have been found virtually throughout the desert, from beverage standing in a corner of the patio.

Other artifacts from this period, including the wooden hooks used to secure cargo onto pack llamas, wooden livestock bells and gourds decorated with pyroengraved designs, had a distribution similar to that of the abovementioned bowls.

The prevalence of hooks and bells is a good indication of the intense llama traffic that occurred during this period. The people of the Tarapaca oases engaged in similar trading activities with their own caravans.

Caravan traffic reached a peak at the close of the pre-Hispanic period, and Additional archaeological evidence shows that during this trading by llama caravanners linked together settlements in the desert, Altiplano, eastern jungles and the Pacific coast illustration: J.

This cultural stage is known as the Toconce, and it is characterized by residential sites containing a century later, by which time the Inkas had built an immense large sets of local ceramics, rock shelter burials, chullpas empire that extended from southern Colombia to central ceremonial towers characteristic of the Altiplano and a few Chile.

Some estimated at around 10 million inhabitants, Tawantinsuyu was time near the end of the Late Intermediate period, these the most extensive pre-Hispanic empire on the continent.

Toconce communities began sharing the village of Turi with Its well-oiled state apparatus mobilized troops, priests, the local indigenous people, never suspecting that this village officials, servants and often entire communities mitimaes would soon come under Inka control.

In their expeditions of conquest, the Inkas offered the kurakas local indigenous chiefs the option of submitting peacefully UNDER THE EMPIRE OF THE SUN to Inka rule or being violently subdued.

Those who accepted were showered with gifts, while those who did not were The Inka expansion of the 15th century began with the threatened with complete annihilation.

Once they had military conquest of the lands and ethnic groups around annexed a territory, the Inkas introduced sun worship and Cusco and continued with the annexation of vast territories a governing regime based on alliances with native leaders on both sides of the Peruvian Andes.

It culminated just over and the redistribution of goods and services. The wealth they obtained went to enrich the Inka State, the official religious hierarchy and individual Inka rulers, who were considered At oases such as Pica and the Tarapaca Ravine it was common to find people of many different backgrounds and origins.

Headwear was one of the main hijos del sol children of the sun. At its height, the Inka means of expressing distinct ethnic identities illustration: J.

Under the Inka mita system, a given number of individuals from every conquered people were obliged to work for the Inka state on special assignments lasting weeks or months, then were returned to their normal duties until required for another assignment.

The state assumed responsibility for providing these mitayos tribute laborers with raw materials and tools and, following the ancient etiquette of Andean reciprocity, also provided them with food and drink.

State-sponsored hospitality towards these rotating labor shifts was a key component of the relationship between the rulers and the ruled under the Inkas.

Through this system, in the Norte Grande the Inka were able to intensify camelid herding, the craft industry and the extraction of marine and mining resources.

They also expanded farmed areas and introduced new techniques to improve agricultural productivity. Occasionally, they moved entire local populations elsewhere, replacing them with groups of people brought from other regions as mitimaes.

The nearly inhabitants lived on corn, chilies, beans, squash, achira tubers, wild plants and guinea pigs, complementing their diet with fish, shellfish and seaweed.

The village was typical of the ones that the Inkas had established in the lowland valleys of this region, and its inhabitants maintained ties with neighboring groups such as those now buried in the coastal cemetery of Playa Miller, and with some further inland, such as those who lived in the village of Mollepampa in the Lluta Valley.

No doubt they were also responsible for organizing the transportation of these products by llama trains to Inka settlements in the mountains and the Altiplano.

The backbone of Inka control in the Arica and Parinacota The Inkas built one of the vastest empires of ancient times. Road that ran through Collasuyu was located.

According to archaeologists, the Inkas controlled the entire region from their administrative center at Zapahuira, a foothills settlement in a strategic position for controlling traffic between the coastal The quipucamayoc were Inka officials responsible for keeping the imperial valleys and the highlands.

Just outside of this center, caravans accounts in the provinces of Tawantinsuyu. The miners of El rectangular plaza that could accommodate a crowd, surrounded Abra labored to extract turquoise and copper oxides for by large rectangular enclosures with gabled roofs kallankas the lapidary industry, breaking up the ore with hammers, where high-ranking visitors and officials were housed.

The selecting for size, piling it in their camps and loading it onto meters that lay between these two building complexes was llama trains to be transported to its destination.

Because the populated by more rudimentary circular dwellings where the Inkas believed that rocks were imbued with life and belonged service staff, mostly locals, resided.

Indeed, small Parinacota Region for its marine resources, in Antofagasta ceremonial platforms and mullu shells mollusks from the Region they were most focused on mining resources.

Not content with this, however, some 25 kilometers mines and established two large provincial centers in the most east of El Abra, perched on the very edge of the Alto Loa densely populated zones with the greatest agricultural and River canyon, the Inka ordered the construction of the Cerro livestock potential.

One true owners of the mineral wealth. The Cerro Colorado of these Inka centers was at Catarpe, around 7 kilometers complex consists of several lesser buildings and a great plaza from San Pedro de Atacama, near the San Bartolo mine.

It featuring a rock outcrop, where an Inka officiant would have consisted of a large settlement with around residences led multitudes of mita laborers in these ceremonies.

Apparently, the Inka built it from the ground up, virtually kilometers north through the Alto Loa Valley. Here, a group adjoining a local village.

The second provincial center was at Turi, of mitayo miners, who would undoubtedly have been around 90 kilometers east of Calama.

In the upper part of the village, where the who would smelt it in their stone furnaces. This other group of local population had one of its most sacred spaces, the Inkas mitayos situated their devices in places exposed to strong winds, 42 built an imposing kallanka in the middle of another rectangular but to date archaeologists have only discovered their camp, plaza, no doubt for celebrating the obligatory hospitality rituals which is known as Yabricoyita, where they lived in temporary, that oiled the mita tribute labor machine.

Some three kilometers owned farms. This seems to have been the fate of the villages away was a branch of the Inka road that came down from the of Toconce and Paniri, as well.

This road connected Yabricoyita with a tambo situated productive center in the region. But the tambo also had kallankas that provided surrounded by residences.

On a promontory here, the Inka lodging to important travelers on their way to a valley shrine erected an ushnu, a small stepped plattform structure that similar to that of Cerro Colorado.

The sector of Turi, then proceeds southward past Cerro Verde, tribute laborers who worked at Collahuasi were brought to Catarpe, the waystation of Tambo de Camar and Peine.

A case in it is thought that the Inkas mediated relations between point is the Alto Loa, a valley incredibly rich in copper, where these two groups to enable the flow of laborers beyond the Inka were forced to move contingents of miners a great their respective ethnic territories.

The elaborate site distance and put them to work in desolate, extraordinarily of Inkaguano, in the Altiplano of Tarapaca Region, may inhospitable places.

Maldonado; illustration: E. And the scant, of San Lorenzo de Tarapaca and in another of similar scale precious water resources of the driest desert on the planet located in the middle of the Bolivian Altiplano.

But usually they installed places of worship are now regularly contaminated and exploited to exhaustion to their own deities on many of highest peaks in the regions by the arrogance of modern civilization.

Rock art can be painted sought to symbolically influence real or imaginary factors pictographs or engraved petroglyphs and is found on that determined the availability of these animals to the the rock surfaces of caves and shelters and on individual local economy or the success of trading expeditions with walls and boulders.

The term also encompasses the huge llama caravans. The presence of these images in the natural habitats of these animals, the fact that the sites are usually located near pastures and permanent freshwater sources or close to traffic and trade routes, and their proximity to archaeological deposits that prove that these animals were used in different ways by human communities, all tell us that these images do not represent the ideological mystification of an exotic species but rather 44 express human concern for a local resource that played a central role in their survival.

Engraving was one of the most popular techniques used to create rock art illustration: J. The images left on this rock shelter were intended to promote the multiplication of llama herds illustration: J.

Their example looked upon with disgust for their custom of drinking sea teaches us that simplicity, far from being equal to barbarism, lion blood and smearing their bodies with sea lion oil and is in fact the key to living wisely in harmony with the world whale fat.

These were the Changos, the last of the fishing that surrounds us. Today we know that the Changos were not a single ethnic group but consisted of several groups skilled in different aspects of coastal living.

These people were masters of mobility, using sea-going rafts made of wood, totora reeds or sea lion skins to ply the coastal waters. In this sense, the inhabitants of this foggy coast have much to teach us today; with so many marine species disappearing due to over-extraction and contamination, it is right to ask ourselves who really are the primitive ones, and who the civilized.

The Changos and their rafts attracted the interest of European visitors to the coasts of northern Chile, as the many drawings and engravings 45 of these vessels by different artists attests to engraving [detail]: A.

Chango fishermen harpooning a humpback whale from sea lion skin rafts drawing: E. Experts believe that this climatic change led to the concentration of flora and fauna around resource- rich environments such as lakes, ravines and more humid zones like the lands now inside the boundaries of Fray Jorge Park in Altos de Talinay IV Region , where a Valdivian cloud forest has stood since prehistoric times.

There, they became easy prey for carnivores inhabiting these parts, including the humans that had begun to colonize the territory as they moved down from lands further north.

These new 49 Evidence of the earliest human inhabitants of the territory that is now Chile has been found in the Quereo Ravine photo: F.

Archaeological excavations in the narrow Quereo ravine have discovered what are apparently bone and stone instruments alongside the abundant remains of animal bones bearing cut marks, suggesting that the place was used for hunting and slaughtering these large prey.

Similar sites nearby contain stone instruments in association with now-extinct fauna, primarily American horse, milodon and paleo-llama.

One particularly interesting site holds a hunting camp that was situated on the shores of an ancient lake in the Santa Julia ravine, north of Los Vilos.

The findings there show the clear association of a projectile point with megafauna remains, but they also include several knives and other stone and bone instruments, proving that the place was occupied for a brief yet intense period to butcher prey into smaller pieces before moving it, possibly to a nearby encampment.

Aguayo, MChAP Archive. The site also contains human burial grounds that were occupied on multiple occasions, possibly as a meeting place where the 50 HOLOCENE HUNTER-GATHERERS disperse groups in the area came together to perform rituals 10, BC to strengthen their social and cultural ties.

All of these sites have yielded large stone points that While the final days of the Pleistocene boasted a natural their ancient occupants used to hunt sea lions and a variety environment that was populated by great mammals that have of cutting instruments used to butcher these animals.

These since become extinct, our own era—the Holocene—ushered ancient peoples also caught birds and collected sea urchins, in environmental conditions very similar to those that prevail limpets, abalone, chitons, mussels, clams, navajuela, scallops and today.

Throughout the year, the Pacific coast offered a variety many other marine species. They collected the seeds of spring of resources that could be dried or smoked then stored, giving grasses, which they ground into flour in stone implements.

One the inhabitants a stable economic base incomparable to that of the most remarkable discoveries at the sites occupied by available in other environments.

Cinema 2: The Time Image. Translated by Hugh Tomlinson, and Robert Galeta. Of Grammatology. Translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak.

Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, Margins of Philosophy. Translated by Alan Bass. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Originally published as Marges de la Philosophie. Paris: Minuit, []. Dudrah, Rajinder K. Bollywood: Sociology Goes to the Movies.

New Delhi: Sage Publications, Filming the Gods: Religion and Indian Cinema. London and New York: Routledge, Dwyer, Rachel, and Christopher Pinney, eds.

Pleasure and the Nation: The History, Politics and Consumption of Public Culture in India. Dwyer, Rachel, and Divia Patel. Cinema India: The Visual Culture of Hindi Film.

London: Reaktion Books, Dyer, Richard, Only Entertainment, 2nd Edition. London: Routledge, []. Eisenlohr, Patrick. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 12, No.

Little India: Diaspora, Time and Ethnolinguistic Belonging in Hindu Mauritius. Berkeley: University of California Press, Eriksen, Thomas Hylland.

Common Denominators: Ethnicity, Nationbuilding and Compromise in Mauritius. Oxford: Berg, Hall, Stuart, and Peter Du Gay, Questions of Cultural Identity.

London: Sage, Haar, Michel. In Reading Heidegger: Commemorations. Edited by John Sallis, and Michael B. Translated by Pascale-Anne Brault.

Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, Poetry, Language, Thought, 1st Edition. The Question Concerning Technology, and Other Essays, 1st Edition.

Translated by William McNeill, and Nicholas Walker. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Being and Time, 2nd Edition. Translated by John Macquarrie, and Edward Robinson.

Oxford, UK, and Cambridge, USA: Blackwell, []. Heidegger, Martin, and David Farrell Krell. Basic Writings: From Being and Time to the Task of Thinking San Francisco: Harper, Inwood, Michael.

Johnson, Patricia Altenbernd. On Heidegger. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Khoyratty, Farhad. Edited by Mar Garcia, Felicity Hand, and Nazir Can, — Pierre, France: Ed.

New York and London: Routledge, Mulhall, Stephen. Heidegger and Being and Time. Routledge Philosophy Guidebooks. Edited by Tim Crane, and Jonathan Wolff.

Natality and Finitude. Prasad, Madhava M. Ideology of the Hindi Film: A Historical Construction. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 4, No.

Tinker, Hugh. A New System of Slavery: The Export of Indian Labor Overseas Oxford: Oxford University Press, Uberoi, Patricia.

An Ethnography of Viewing Hum Aapke Hain Koun …! In Pleasure and the Nation: The History, Politics and Consumption of Public Culture in India, edited by Rachel Dwyer, and Christopher Pinney, — Filmography Advani, Nikhil, dir.

Kal Ho Na Ho. India: Dharma Productions, Chadha, Gurinder, dif. Bend It Like Beckham. UK: BSkyB, British Screen, Helkon, Dilwale Dulhaniya Lejayenge.

India: Yash Raj Films, Ghai, Subhash, dir. India: Mukta Arts, Gowariker, Ashutosh, dir. India: Ashutosh Gowariker Productions, Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gham.

Khan, Mehboob, dir. Mother India. India: Mehboob Productions, Purab aur Paschim. India: Vishal International Productions, Nair, Mira, dir. Monsoon Wedding.

USA: Mirabai Films, East is East. UK: Channel Four Films, Raj Anand, Siddharth, dir. Salaam Namaste. Farhad Abdool Kader Sulliman Khoyratty is Senior lecturer in Cultural Studies and Head, Department of English Studies, University of Mauritius.

An invited member of a dozen international associations and projects, he is also an Honorary Fellow of the University of Iowa, Fellow of the Cambridge Commonwealth Society, formerly Junior Research Fellow, Hughes Hall, Cambridge.

Yellow Sea: A Floating Home of Chinese Korean Minority Mengyan YU Yolanda Abstract Chinese Korean Minority originally immigrates to Manchuria from northern Korean Peninsula and is an indispensable branch of Korean Diasporas.

Currently, political constraints, economic opportunities, and cultural intimacy bring them to South Korea. At the same time, the imbalanced development between Chinese Korean minority and South Koreans has also created a volatile situation.

Yellow Sea the border sea between China and Korea metaphorically represents the home of Chinese Korean Minority, who are a people floating between two countries, legally Chinese, historically Korean, yet ostracised by both.

This chapter investigates the political and social development of this minority, through visual, audio and textual content analysis methods.

The hypothesis that it straddles the threshold between China and South Korea, plagued by institutional insufficiency and a cultural sense of exclusion in both countries, will be tested.

Key Words: Korean Diasporas, Chinese Korean Minority Cho-sun Jok , Yellow Sea, human trafficking, Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, Chinese minority governance.

Introduction: Locating Chinese Korean Minority in Korean Diasporas The current Korean Diasporas has been formed through two waves of international Korean migration.

The first wave took place s in Russia, China, America and Japan. The new wave began in the s in America, Central Asia, Europe and Latin America.

In the modern history of China, Korean minority has been an active contributor to the regional development in Manchuria as they are well-known for their anti-Japanese tradition, active support for the Korean War, 3 and communist movements.

It is crowned model minority for its revolutionary tradition, political loyalty and impressive educational outcome in China.

Nowadays, they keep a much closer connection with South Korea, mainly for the luring economic opportunities.

Though blood ties them together, South Koreans and the Chinese Korean Minority have developed their ethnic identity quite differently, according to different political environments.

This chapter addresses the question how and why Chinese Koreans live in the midst of an endemic marginalisation in both China and South Korea by approaching relevant policy and official data.

I would precede the content audio, visual, textual with an analysis along the four chronological stories Figure 1 in Yellow Sea, 4 by summarising the major arguments from the shots in each story and relating them to policy and data in reality.

Chinese minorities are allowed to conduct their regional autonomy within a certain geographically-clustered area, granted with the freedom to preserve their own culture and life style.

However they have neither obtained total autonomous status nor fully integrated with the Han culture. This could also be an actual integration policy, through which ethnic groups gradually shift their loyalties, expectations, and political activities toward a new centre.

The dissatisfaction on many de-politicised social issues might mix with some potential political challenges.

Gradually it might escalate into inter-ethnic conflicts, which worries Chinese government the most. In recent years, there has been a debate between the liberal and conservative sides concerning the reform of Chinese minority governance.

Ma Rong raises challenges to the current Chinese minority regional autonomy model by suggesting that it fails to integrate Chinese society and increasingly causes problems.

This article will shed a new light on the problematic side of this model minority by trying to test Chinese minority policy model and fill in an empirical gap in understanding the Chinese Korean Minority.

The gap needs to be filled is observations on the problems of Chinese Korean Minority development, which has not caught real academic attention.

Methodology This chapter adopts visual, audio and textual analysis methods, by coding the transcript and images in Yellow Sea.

Starting in America, many visual study programmes were introduced during the last two decades, such as Theory and Criticism of Film, Television, and Video, Cultural Studies, 12 etc.

Predecessors like James Elkins, Robert Loescher 13 have not tried to establish a solid theory, but to use it as a practical interpretive tool.

Visual study is socially informative and multi- dimensional, and film provides a visual medium to construct an inter-subjectivity which makes sense in its own terms.

Furthermore, what is visually conveyed and interpreted more efficiently intensifies the relationship between individuals and their historical context.

Chinese Korean Minority: Floating on the Yellow Sea Yellow Sea tells a story about love, betrayal, and killing. Becoming the only survivor and the suspect, Goo-nam falls into deep fear and confusion in South Korea.

Since he is also a trafficked Chinese Korean, he has to struggle for his survival like a dog and finally dies alone in Yellow Sea Figure 2. Being the epitome of Chinese Korean Minority, Goo- nam is the centre character across the movie.

The movie begins with taxi driver Goo-nam telling a rabid-dog story in a smoky, dirty, noisy local Mah-jong club in Yanji: 14 When I was 11 years old, there was a dog in our village became rabid, a killer, who would bite its own clan…later it died and I buried it…before long people dug him up and devoured the carcass…The rabies has come back.

It is going around… 15 This story becomes a clue for our understanding of the Chinese Korean Minority, through which it is indicated that after eating the sick dog, people are spreading a dog disease by biting their own clan, no matter it is South Korean or Chinese Korean.

First is the disrespect and distance they always face. Goo- nam is very short-spoken and toneless. Among the few words he speaks, we can feel his strong accent in both Chinese and Korean.

His social network is within the Chinese Korean group, he does not have Han friends but his creditors are Han. It is impossible to capture even a single smile on his face.

Partially we could attribute the miserable employment situation in Manchuria among both Han and minority people to the structural transformation of local economy in the region.

This phenomenon in turn leads to the third issue: seeking opportunities overseas. Since 20 and especially after , 21 Chinese Koreans have increasing exposure to the cultural openness and economic attractiveness from South Korea.

This has fundamentally changed their life style in Yanbian region. South Korea is the second largest trade partner with Yanbian prefecture in and shows the highest development rate.

South Korea is also the biggest foreign investor in Yanbian region. From , the overseas labour remittances of Yanbian region reach 5.

Among the ethnic Koreans who work in South Korea with a foreign passport, Chinese Korean Minority is the largest group , in Fourthly, there is an omnipresent spiritual insecurity and inferiority of Chinese Korean Minority.

They would emphasise their Chinese citizen identity with an obvious effort on demonstrating the superiority of the South Korean culture.

Their loneliness, inferiority and insecurity would be more or less compensated if they could go to South Korea and make money. In the opening and reform era of China, people tend to believe that making money is the most important, even the only way that leads to happiness, or at least to security.

Last but not the least, there are many social challenges generated for Chinese Korean Minority governance as more and more Chinese Korean people are fighting for their South Korean dream.

These unattended children and old people generate according social welfare and education demands: the unattended school students have already taken He was hoping that he could possibly reunite with his wife in South Korea and re-start a happy life back in China after closing this dirty deal.

After a wild journey and finally got trafficked to South Korea, Goo-nam begins his Killer and Chinese Korean Minority life there.

However, the first nightmare waits for him is the illusion of South Korean dream as second-class citizen.

He is greeted with a cold attitude by his fellow Chinese Koreans in a cold January. He has to hide and run all the time, except from those South Eastern Asian migrant workers who suffer no less from their 3D work 26 there.

As Victim Kim is killed, Goo-nam unsuspectingly becomes the most wanted man, as the suspect for the police, and as a threat for the real criminal.

All this becomes impossible until he realises that he cannot return to China. With all the feelings of fear and insecurity, Goo-nam gradually has no other choice but run like a dog.

Home and love have brought Goo-nam to South Korea and his only hope abandons him. In the last story Yellow Sea, Boss Myun and his gang savagely indulge on hunks of meat while ignoring the television broadcasting South Korean national anthem.

On institutional level, there is very limited transnational cooperation observed in and out of the movie. She looks around with a slight grin on her face, and then walks toward the exit back home.

Maybe only when Goo-nam finally rests in peace, his dream would finally become a peaceful one, without any paranoid insecurity and sees his wife home.

Men, referred to as dogs, will bite their own clan to fight only for their animal instinct women and money. With all the bubbles of wishing people are loyal and full of love poked, Goo-nam falls into deep disappointment about his own clan.

Starting as an imperfect but normal person, Goo-nam does long for a happy warm home. On his way home, his hasty and short-cut efforts to make money and restart a new life hastens his undoing.

Then where is a possible home for Chinese Korean Minority? South Korea presents a home-like paradise to them; however, what really awaits them there is endless discrimination with the Chinese Korean Minority label.

No matter how hard they try to earn respect by making money, with a lack of unique cultural root and a failed governance mechanism, they could not be really respected.

Special Issue: Korean Development and Migration 38, Issue 3 : It tells a tragic story about a Chinese Korean man Goo- nam, and the harsh reality Chinese Koreans face in both China and South Korea.

It has also participated in many international film festivals and received positive movie reviews from many mainstream media.

Now there are many laid-off workers generated by the local reform of State Owned Enterprises. Mah-jong, which is a traditional Chinese gambling game, has become a tremendously popular activity among local unemployed people.

Bibliography Bulag, Uradyn E. Chen, Jianyue. Shijie Minzu 5 Cui, Longbao, Dae-Sook Suh, and Edward J. Koreans in China : 78— Dargis, Manohla.

The New York Times Movie Reviews, December 1, Accessed May 6, Dreyer, June T. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Visual Studies: A Skeptical Introduction.

Fong, Rowena, and Paul R. East Asia 13, No. Gao, Fang. Asian Ethnicity 9, No. Ma, Rong. Nan Feng Chuang 26 : 50— Mackerras, Colin.

Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, New York: St. Qin, Shibao, and Zhang Yongxue. Renmin Forum: Academy Front , No. Sautman, Barry.

Scaling Back Minority Rights? Wang, Lixiong. Honk Kong: Hong Kong Social Science Press, Wu, Lanfu. Zhongguo Minzu 3 : 5. Xu, Long.

Yanji Municipal Statistical Yearbook China Statistical Press, Yanbian Prefectural Statistical Yearbook Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

Special Issue: Korean Development and Migration 38, Issue 3 : — Yu, Ma-di. Cho-sun Ilbo Chinese Edition , April 20, Accessed April 24, Zabrovskaia, Larisa.

In Korea Yearbook Politics, Economy and Society, edited by Rudiger Frank, James E. Hoare, Patrick Kollner, and Susan Pares, — The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, Her other research interests include the Korean Peninsula, foreign migration governance, and international relation issues in North-East Asia.

Although the main characters in these stories are of Nigerian origin, few of them fit easily into the limiting categories of Nigerian or Nigerian diaspora, not only because their geographical placement is often in flux, but also because their sense of identity is not based on nationality, national origin, or even a sense of belonging to a Nigerian diaspora.

On the contrary, they can arguably be described as cosmopolitan - not in the old elitist sense of the term, but in the contemporary sense of transcending the limitations of nationality or national origin as a category of cultural identity.

Indeed, many of the stories draw attention to the artificiality of national identity itself, not only by highlighting the tribal, religious and ethnic divisions within Nigeria, but also by recalling the war which aimed - and failed - to create the independent state of Biafra, so that national identity is never straightforward, even for the characters in this collection who have never left Nigeria.

Consequently, the diasporic experience does not seem, in these stories, to create the conventional crisis of cultural identity which has become almost de rigeur in much of the diasporic fiction of the past few decades.

All categories of cultural identity are socially constructed of course, but within the context of ongoing globalisation, the stories in this collection seem to point to the increasing irrelevance of the concept of diaspora and the idea of nationality on which it is based.

Key Words: Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, The Thing around Your Neck, Nigeria, diaspora, globalisation, cultural identity, cosmopolitanism, national identity.

Or some who guessed that you were African told you that they loved elephants and wanted to go on a safari. Where was her husband?

Was something wrong? Nnkem said everything was fine. He lived in Nigeria and America; they had two homes. She saw the doubt in their eyes, knew they were thinking of other couples with second homes in places like Florida and Montreal, couples who inhabited each home at the same time, together.

Obiora laughed when she told him how curious the neighbours were about them. He said oyibo people were like that. If you did something in a different way, they would think you were abnormal, as though their way was the only possible way.

And although Nnkem knew many Nigerian couples who lived together all year, she said nothing. Not surprisingly, it emerges that he has a mistress in Lagos who has moved into their house, so when the previously compliant Nnkem finally insists on moving the entire family back to Nigeria, it has nothing to do with postcolonial issues like diaspora and cultural identity.

On the contrary, it is for the entirely personal goal of reclaiming her house and her husband. This is home, this brown house in suburban Philadelphia with sprinklers that make perfect water arcs in the summer.

And when the snow covers the yellow fire hydrant on the street, she misses the Lagos sun that glares down even when it rains. She has sometimes thought about moving home, but never seriously, never concretely.

She goes to a Pilates class twice a week in Philadelphia with her neighbour; … she expects banks to have drive-ins.

America has grown on her, snaked its roots under her skin. The old white men and women who muttered and glared at him, the black men who shook their heads at you, the black women whose pitying eyes bemoaned your lack of self-esteem, your self-loathing.

One of the women is a Hausa Muslim and the other an Igbo Christian. As they shelter together and help each other, other Hausa Muslims and Igbo Christians nearby on the streets are hacking each other down with machetes and clubbing each other with stones.

And not having a secure sense of Nigerian national identity, they have even less of a sense of belonging to a Nigerian diaspora in the United States.

If sectarian divisions are shown to be arbitrary in these stories, so too are national divisions. Indeed, several of the stories call attention to the elaborate institutional structures which are designed solely to enforce artificial divisions of nationality.

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